Fines in Sentencing Working Paper #5: Review of United States Fines Literature


This 1982 Vera report reviews the limited American literature published to date concerning fines. The major topics reviewed are: fines history, sentencing goals, volume of fine use, types of cases, white-collar crime, fine amounts, deferred and installment payments, preventing and handling default, alternatives for indigents, and a few administrative issues.


Photo by Lucy Nicholson (REUTERS)

People in Jail and Prison in Spring 2021

Vera Institute of Justice (Vera) researchers collected data on the number of people in local jails and state and federal prisons throughout 2020 and into spring 2021. Vera researchers estimated the incarcerated population using a sample of approximately 1,600 jail jurisdictions, 50 states, the Federal Bureau of Prisons, the U.S. Marshals Service (U ...

  • Jacob Kang-Brown, Chase Montagnet, Jasmine Heiss
June 07, 2021